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Molecular biology of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key factor in most processes that are important for general homeostasis. VDRs are simply in a variety of cells, including monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells.

The vitamin D receptor is a nuclear receptor that is stimulated by the vitamin D hormone. It is just a receptor that forms a heterodimer with the retinoid X radio. The capturing of the vitamin D complex when using the RXR results in the account activation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. These kinds of pathways generate immediate responses independent of the transcriptional response of target genetics.

VDRs can also be thought to mediate the effects of vitamin D on bone maintenance. This is supported by the relationship between calcaneus density and VDR receptor alleles in individuals. In addition , numerous VDR target genes had been identified, which includes calcium-binding proteins, calbindin D-9k and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.

Many studies have investigated the word of VDR in various damaged tissues. For instance, confocal microscopy has demonstrated VDR elemental staining in human bande cells. In addition , VDR has been detected in white-colored matter oligodendrocytes. These studies have led to the hypothesis that calcium-dependent platelet activation may be controlled by swift non-genomic effects of VDR in mitochondria.

In addition to vitamin D, VDRs have been implicated in regulation of calcium homeostasis in the large intestine. Nevertheless , the exact device is not known. Various factors, including environmental exposures and genetic factors, may control VDR term.